The tambourine or Marine is a musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils". Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all.

Tambourines come in many different shapes with the most common being circular It is found in many forms of music, classical music, Roma music, Persian music, Persian music, gospel music, pop music and rock music. The word tambourine finds its origins in the Middle Persian word tambūr "lute, drum" (via the Middle French tambour).

Woman playing a tambourine. Detail from Recreation (1896), by Charles Sprague Pearce. Library of Congress Rhomas Jefferson Building,Washington, D.C.


The tambourine can be held in the hand or mounted on a stand, and can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it sharply with hand or stick or using the tambourine to strike the leg or hip.

Tambourine rolls

There are several ways to achieve a tambourine roll. The easiest is to rapidly rotate the hand holding the tambourine back and forth, pivoting at the wrist.

The 'thumb roll'

An advanced playing technique is known as the “thumb roll” when the finger or thumb is moved over the skin or rim of the tambourine producing a fast roll from the jingles on the instrument. This takes more skill and experience to master. The thumb of the hand not holding the tambourine is run around the head of the instrument approximately one centimetre from the rim with some pressure applied. If performed correctly, the thumb should bounce along the head rapidly, producing the roll.

The thumb roll technique can be made easier with the application of wax or resin to the head. A continuous roll can be achieved by moving the thumb in a figure of 8 pattern around the head, although this takes some practice to perfect.

The Brazilian pandeiro


The pandeiro is a Brazilian hand percussion instrument consisting of a single tension-headed drum with jingles in the frame. It is very typical of more traditional Brazilian music, such as Samba, Choro, and Capoeira.

The pandeiro is very similar to a tambourine, except that the tension on the head can be adjusted and the metal jingles are crisper; more staccato

Even on its own, the pandeiro is a formidable percussive element. Notes are made by striking with one hand near the frame or the center with the thumb, finger tips, heel, or palm of the hand. The accompanying hand holds the instrument while providing a muting finger from underneath, and can also produce notes shaking the frame. The quick rhythms produced by alternating strikes can sound as though many instruments are being played simultaneously: a melodic drum, a deeper drum, jingles, and a slap drum

Egyptian riq
The Riq (also spelled riqq or rik) is a type of tambourine used as a traditional instrument in Arabic Music. It is an important instrument in both folk and classical music throughout the Arabic-speaking world. Widely known as "Shakers".


(Бубен in Russian, Бубон in Ukrainian, bǫ̑bǝn in Slovenian, buben in Czech, bęben in Polish) is a musical instrument of the percussion family similar to a tambourine. A buben consists of a wooden or metal hoop with a tight membrane stretched over one of its sides (some bubens have no membrane at all). Certain kinds of bubens are equipped with clanking metal rings, plates, cymbals, or little bells. It is held in the hand and can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it sharply with hand. It is used for rhythmical accompaniment during dances, soloist or choral singing. Buben is often used by some folk and professional bands, as well as orchestras.

The name came from Greek Language βόμβος (low and hollow sound) and βομβύλη (a breed of bees) and related to Indo-Aryan bambharas (bee) and English bee.

Buben is known to have existed in many countries since time immemorial, especially in the East. There are many kinds of bubens, including def, daf, or gaval (Azerbaijan), daf or khaval (Armenia), daira (Georgia), doira (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), daire or def (Iran), bendeir ( Arab countries), pandero (Spain) In Kievan Rus, drums and military timpani were referred to as buben.

A traditional Central Asian musician from the 1860s or 1870s, holding up his dayereh.
A dayereh (or Doyra, Dojra, Dajre, Doira) is a medium-sized frame drum with jingles used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran (Persia), The Balkans, and many Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It is a percussion instrument, and is something intemediate between a drum and a tambourine.
An Iranian woman playing a frame drum, from a painting on the walls of Chehel-sotoon palace, Isfahan, 17th century, Iran.


A daf is a large-sized tambourine used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey (where it is called tef), Uzbekistan, (where it's called childirma), India(where it is known as the Dafli) Turkmenistan, and Iranian Kurdistan. Daf typically indicates the beat and tempo of the music being played, thus acts like the conductor in the monophonic oriental music.
Kanjira drums
The kanjira or ganjira is a South Indian frame drum of the tambourine family. It is mostly used in Carnatic Music concerts (South Indian classical music) as a supporting instrument for the mridangam.


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